Chapter 09 - From #02: The Major Emory Address before the Geographical Society, 1859: The Indians of Arizona are best classed as friendly and hostile. The friendly Indians are the Pimos, Maricopas, Papagos, and Yumas, with a few scattering, miserable tame Apaches. The Pimos and Maricopas occupy a beautiful and fertile tract on the Gila, one hundred and eighty miles from its junction with the Colorado. They are a brave and hospitable race : they live in villages, and cultivate the arts of peace. Their regular fields, well-made irrigating ditches, and beautiful crops of cotton, wheat, corn, pumpkins, melons, and beans, have not only gladdened the eye, but also given timely assistance to the thousands of emigrants who have traversed Arizona on their way to the Pacific The costume of the Pimos is extremely simple, only covering their loins, and a small straw hat, except in the case of the chiefs, who wear a sort of pantaloon of coarse cotton cloth. The Pimos and Apaches wage hereditary and fierce war, in which the Pimos are generally the victors. So high were their services valued by the Mexican government as a barrier to the incursions of the Gila Apaches, that whenever they visited the Mexican towns, the authorities treated them with marked hospitality and kindness, making them presents of value, to be paid for by the public treasury. Much as we pride ourselves upon our superior government, no measures* have been taken to continue our friendly relations with the Pimos ; and to our shame be it said, it is only to the forbearance of these Indians that we owe the safety of the life of a single American citizen in Central or Western Arizona, or the carriage of the mails overland to the Pacific. The Maricopas live near the Pimos, and by contiguity and intermarriage have become similar in their customs. The Papagos resemble, but are inferior to the Pimos, do not cultivate so much, and live in scattered villages in the central and western parts of the Territory.
Following is the list of uncopyrighted publications used for the History of Arizona and the Southwest. All can be easily found on-line in PDF format. Sorted by publication date they are:
The majority of the publications listed here were written with the intent to be historically accurate. This is not an attempt to make a point of historical fact by providing this information. It is intended to simply share what is documented about the American Southwest, primarily on the Arizona Territorial area.
There are no living people to speak for the time period related here. We must use recorded information to look into that era. The point-of-view of today is different from those living then. The intent here is not to provide an opinion. If one spends time reading the material listed, it will be enlightening as to life in the untamed Territory of Arizona as it was in the minds of the people of at that era.
Regarding the stories of the all of people in the Territory of Arizona it can bring out all emotions. From sympathy to anger and sadness to admiration, you will feel something. It is difficult to imagine what it would be like to be living here, or traveling through, at different times in the past. It is hopeful that all will find a least find some amusement looking through the window of the past provided here.
It was a rough life for the Land Surveyor of yester-year. The Survey party that was sent out then consisted of a large crew. Usually between 5-7 men. There was a head Land Surveyor along with a couple of Land Surveyor trainees which pulled the chain. The chain was an actual 66 foot long chain, with 100 links, used to measure distance. It looks similar to what holding the flags at the base of the page. There were laborers to help clear trees and brush out of the way. Given the crude equipment of the time, it is amazing how accurate some of the old Land Surveyor's measurements were.
Land Surveying in Arizona Started in 1866. From a report in 1867 by Joseph S. Wilson, Commissioner of the General Land Office : "A contract was entered into with Deputy Surveyor William H. Pierce on the 15th day of December, 1866, for the survey in Arizona of 96 miles of the Gila and Salt River Meridian; 36 miles of the base line and standard and exterior township boundary lines, to amount in the aggregate to a sum not exceeding $7,500. Mr. Pierce completed the survey of the meridian from the initial corner north 24 miles, the base line from the same corner east 36 miles, and the first standard parallel north along the south boundary of township 5 north, east 42 miles, and west 42 miles, when the military protection which had been furnished him was withdrawn, and he was compelled to quit the field, the Indians infesting the country, rendering it unsafe and impracticable to continue the work without military escort. At his request, and by your order, Mr. Pierce has been released from further obligation to prosecute the work under his contract."
Chapter 09 - From #02: The Major Emory Address before the Geographical Society, 1859: The Indians of Arizona are best classed as friendly and hostile. The friendly Indians are the Pimos, Maricopas, Papagos, and Yumas, with a few .........Continue to complete Chapter
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